EUR/JPY ascent shows no sign of stopping

Data releases globally continue to show that economic conditions are strengthening. The latest indicator to lend support to this view was the January US jobs report, which taken together with past revisions revealed that job market conditions were better than previously thought over recent months. The report labelled as a “goldilocks” outcome also revealed a slight rise in the unemployment report, implying that there is little chance of any consequent shift in the Fed’s highly accommodative stance.

More broadly global manufacturing confidence indices also revealed gains (albeit with some divergence in Europe) and point to expansion in output in the months ahead in many countries. The data also suggest that weakening in economic indicators in Q4 last year including the surprise drop in US Q4 GDP was merely a setback rather than a renewed slide into recession. All of this leaves markets in rather buoyant mood as reflected in the ongoing gains in risk assets over the past few weeks and positive end to last week.

All is not rosy however, and politicians may yet ruin the day as political frictions in the US over spending cuts and a new budget have yet to be resolved. Meanwhile, elections in Italy on 24/25 February will provoke more nervousness as they approach. The EU Summit on 7/8 February will also be in focus as politicians attempt to salvage a deal on the EU budget after talks broke down in November 2012.

A light data calendar this week will mean that central bank decisions will garner most attention over coming days although I expect no change in policy from the European Central Bank, Bank of England and Reserve Bank of Australia. Risk assets will therefore not find any support from central banks this week. In particular the ECB’s stance of contracting its balance sheet continues to run counter to the more aggressive easing from other central banks, with the pain on an already weak Eurozone economy accentuated by a stronger EUR. Indeed, commercial banks’ LTRO repayments to the ECB may have helped to propel the EUR even higher.

Despite the ongoing upward momentum of USD/JPY the USD looks set to remain under downward pressure in general although there was notably some short covering according to the latest CFTC IMM report. The JPY shows no sign of reversing its losses as a combination of official rhetoric, improving risk appetite and growing use as a funding currency intensify the pressure on the currency. In particular, EUR/JPY’s ascent shows not sign of stalling into this week, with speculative longs in this currency pair at their highest level since May 2007.

US dollar on the front foot

Worries about earnings have resulted in a lacklustre performance for equity markets and a gradual increase in risk aversion over recent days. Nonetheless, economic data especially in the US continues to be encouraging as revealed by a spate of recent releases culminating in the October US jobs report which revealed a 171k increase in payrolls and upward revisions to previous months. Although the unemployment rate ticked higher to 7.9%, the trend is one of gradual but unspectacular improvement.

This has provided some support to the USD but notably US bond yields have not reacted much, leaving the USD a little vulnerable to any slippage. Commodity prices continue to be pressured, with a firmer USD and better US data fuelling further downside. The trend is set to continue over coming days especially if the data releases result in reduced expectations for more US quantitative easing.

The USD is likely to remain firm benefitting from weaker economic data elsewhere and a lack of progress with regard to Greece and Spain. Missed debt and deficit targets in Greece highlight the tough task ahead although Greek officials appear to be hopeful that they will receive the votes needed in votes on Wednesday and Sunday to pass reforms and budget cuts demanded by lenders.

This week there will of course be plenty of attention on US elections and various permutations of the outcome and its impact on markets. Polls show that the Presidential race is too close to call although the House and Senate races look like delivering the status quo. The worst case scenario for markets is for a prolonged period of uncertainty if the results produce no clear cut result which could ultimately undermine the USD.

Aside from the elections central bank decisions from the European Central Bank, Bank of England and Reserve Bank of Australia will also garner attention. While an unchanged outcome from the ECB is likely, both the BoE and RBA are set to ease policy further, the former in the form of a GBP 25 billion increase in quantitative easing and the latter with a 25bps policy rate cut. In Europe, the 8 November Eurogroup meeting will also be in focus as officials discuss progress on Greece’s next loan tranche.

All Eyes On US Jobs Data

Happy New Year!

2010 ended on a sour note especially for eurozone equity markets (and the Australian cricket team) where there has yet to be a resolution to ongoing growth/fiscal/debt tensions.  The EUR strengthened into year end but this looked more like position adjustment than a shift in sentiment and EUR/USD is likely to face stiff resistance around the 1.3500 level this week, with a drop back towards 1.3000 more likely.  In the US there was some disappointment in the form of a surprise drop in December consumer confidence data but pending home sales and the Chicago PMI beat expectations, with the overall tone of US data remaining positive.

There will be plenty to chew on this week in terms of data and events which will provide some much needed direction at the beginning of the year.  The main event is the December US jobs report at the end of the week.   Ahead of this there will be clues from various other job market indicators including the Challenger jobs survey, ADP employment report, and the ISM manufacturing and non-manufacturing surveys.  The data will reflect a modest improvement in job market conditions and the preliminary forecast for December payrolls is for a 135k increase, with private payrolls set to rise by 145k and the unemployment rate likely to fall slightly to 9.7%.

The minutes of the 14 December Fed FOMC meeting (Tue) will also come under scrutiny against the background of rising US bond yields.  In addition, Fed Chairman Bernanke will speak on the monetary and fiscal outlook as well as the US economy to the Senate Budget Panel.   Bernanke will once again defend the use of quantitative easing whilst keeping his options open to extend it if needed.  However, the changing composition of the FOMC with four new members added in 2011 suggests a more hawkish tinge, which will likely make it more difficult to agree on further QE.   In any case, the tax/payroll holiday package agreed by the US administration means that more QE will not be necessary. 

It’s probably not the most auspicious time for new member Estonia to be joining the eurozone especially as much of the speculation last year focussed on a potential break up.  The beginning of the year will likely see ongoing attention on the tribulations of Ireland after its bailout, with looming elections in the country.  Portugal and Spain will also remain in focus as the “two-speed” recovery in 2011 takes shape.  Data releases this week include monetary data in the form of the eurozone December CPI estimate and M3 money supply.  Inflation will tick up to 2% but this ought to be of little concern for the ECB.  Final PMI data and confidence indices will likely paint a picture of slight moderation.   

The USD ended the year on a soft note, with year lows against the CHF and multi year lows vs. AUD registered, but its weakness is unlikely to extend much further.  The key driver will remain relative bond yields and on this front given the prospects for relative US yields to move higher, the USD will likely gain support.  There maybe a soft spot for the USD in Q1 2011 but for most of the rest of the year the USD is set to strengthen especially against the EUR which will increasingly comer under pressure as peripheral tensions and growth divergence weigh on the currency.

Sell Risk Trades On Rallies

It seems that every time there is a bounce in risk appetite it quickly dissipates as worries about growth, fiscal deficits, sovereign debt, etc, return to dent sentiment. This was again the case overnight as markets sold off late in the US session, with an early bounce in sentiment proving too fragile to last. This pattern of trading is set to persist for a long while yet, with the overall tone of selling risk trades on rallies remaining in place.

Fears over a double dip global recession have increased since the release of Friday’s disappointing US jobs report even if it is too early to pass judgment based on the basis of one month’s data. Coupled with worries about slowing growth momentum in China, hopes that slower growth in the eurozone could be counterbalanced by firm growth elsewhere are being dashed. The problem is that despite a strong quarter of growth for most economies in Q2 2010 the outlook for the second half of the year is far more uncertain.

European Union officials sought to calm worries about the potential for renewed fiscal crises in the future by agreeing to monitor national budgets more closely and at an earlier stage whilst introducing a wider range of sanctions on excessive deficits. Unfortunately this is akin to the idiom about closing the stable door after the horse has bolted. The steps aren’t going to help resolve the current crisis. Evidence of implementation, execution and results on the deficit cutting front will help however, but this is a process that will take months rather than days or weeks.

A couple of factors may have prevented the EUR from extending losses overnight. 1) Germany announced EUR 80 billion in spending cuts along with 15,000 public sector job cuts. Germany also is pushing for a financial transactions tax on tap of the bank levy. 2) European finance ministers finalised details of the EUR 440 bn Financial Stability Facility which aims to sell AAA rated bonds to make loans to eurozone countries. The only question is the approval process. The statement on the funds operations only said that “national legal procedures to participate in the facility are well on track”. EUR/USD is likely to range between 1.1826 and 1.2110 over the short-term.

China tightens policy

Risk appetite has soured due to a combination of the rise in China’s reserve requirements, disappointing earnings including Alcoa and a profit warning by Chevron, setting the scene for a day in the red for Asian markets.  The turn in sentiment has hit commodities and commodity currencies particularly hard whilst the JPY has outperformed.  As would be expected against the background of higher risk aversion the US dollar made up some ground.

All eyes are on China and markets will now look to the implications for CNY policy.  Increasingly it seems that data and policy in China is driving global markets and aside from the hike in reserve requirements this was also evident in the fact that stronger trade data over the weekend helped to counter the impact of the soft US December payrolls report.  Further increases in the reserve ratio are likely over coming months followed by actual hikes in interest rates (likely the 1 year rate).  China’s move to tighten policy further over coming months will likely be accompanied by allowing greater appreciation of the CNY too.

The news worsened overnight as the ABC Consumer Confidence index dropped by 6 points to -47, the biggest one-week drop in the last 25 years.  US trade data also came in worse than expected, with the deficit widening to $36.4bn in November.  There is little on the data front today to keep markets occupied today, suggesting that direction will come from equity markets and with more earnings this week including Intel Corp and JPMorgan Chase & Co. there will be plenty to digest.  In the near term the tone of risk aversion is set to continue to dominate but any pull back in risk currencies is likely to prove short-lived.   

There will be more Fed speakers as well as the Fed’s Beige Book today to provide clues ahead of the January 26-27 FOMC meeting.   Aside from noting some improvements in the economy, weak labour market conditions as well as a lack of inflationary pressures will help support expectations that the Fed will hold off from raising interest rates this year.   Fed speakers include Fisher and Plosser both of whom give speeches on the US economy though neither are current voters on the FOMC.   Plosser’s comments so far have highlighted the need for a timely “exit strategy”.

All eyes on US payrolls

Happy New Year.  Markets are likely to struggle for direction ahead of the key US December non-farm payrolls data though the end of the year ended on a softer note for equity markets in the US, whilst Asian stocks were somewhat firmer.  The USD has taken a firmer tone at the start of this week but is likely to face renewed pressure into the new-year.  The fact that USD/Asian FX has failed to build any momentum on the upside also highlights risks to the USD from current levels. 

Ahead of payrolls look for EUR/USD technical support around 1.4177, with strong resistance around 1.4459 whilst USD/JPY will find support at 91.00 and resistance around 94.08.   I favour a firmer bias for the USD at the beginning of the week but this may not last too long and would look to take profits on long USD / short risk currency positions into next week. 

2010 is set to be a year of two halves for currency markets and whilst the USD is to eventually recover, the rally seen at the end of last year is likely to prove unsustainable, especially now that a lot of short USD positions have been covered.   If anything the pull back in various risk currencies provide better levels to take long positions, especially in the AUD and NZD as well as many Asian currencies where renewed appreciation in the months ahead is likely.  I particularly like the IDR and KRW, two of last year’s winners. 

The US jobs report will provide some evidence of a normalisation in economic conditions, with December likely to have marked the best month in two years for payrolls (Bloomberg consensus forecasts a 1k drop in payrolls). Although hiring is unlikely to pick up quickly and wage pressures are set to remain subdued, the data will mark an encouraging shift in job market conditions following the loss of 7.2 million jobs since the US recession began.  The unemployment rate is likely to remain stubbornly high, however.

Ahead of the jobs data markets will be able to garner some clues to the data from the jobs component in today’s release of the December ISM data.  The ISM is likely to remain in expansion territory though is unlikely to register much of a gain from last month’s 53.6 reading.   The eurozone and UK also release their manufacturing PMIs today and although both will remain above the 50 boom/bust mark, neither are set to register much improvement from November’s reading. 

There will also be some attention on central bank thinking this week, with the release of the December 16 meeting FOMC minutes as well as the BoE rate decision to digest.  The minutes will likely acknowledge some signs of improvement in the economy but there will be no indication that the Fed is shifting its “extended period” thinking even if the Fed wants to reassure markets that it has an exit strategy in place.   The BoE meeting will be a non-event for markets, with more interest on the outcome of the February meeting.

Caution ahead of US payrolls

The weaker than forecast November US ISM non-manufacturing, a negative UK press report about the problems in Dubai and caution ahead of the US jobs report have dampened risk appetite overnight though there is expected to be little action until the release of the US jobs report today, with some USD short covering likely ahead of the release.  The jobs data could add to disappoint, with data this week including the ADP jobs report, and the employment components of the ISM surveys consistent with a worse than consensus (-125k) reading.  

It was encouraging however, that jobless claims revealed a further decline (457k) to its lowest since November 2008 indicating further improvement in the jobs market, though the data will have little bearing on today’s payrolls data which as noted above will likely disappoint expectations.  A below consensus may fuel some increase in risk aversion and a slightly firmer USD though markets are most likely to settle into ranges in the near term. 

The JPY may make up some lost ground against the background of weaker equity performance.  Amidst the confusing messages on the JPY over recent weeks officials appear to be giving stronger hints at intervention, leaving the currency on the back foot over recent days.  The drop in the JPY may prove temporary however, if official rhetoric is not followed up by action; USD/JPY is likely to struggle to break through resistance around 88.60.  

Following the BoJ’s disappointing JPY P10 trillion operation announced this week attention turns to the announcement of new government stimulus measures which were reportedly expected today.  This may also prove disappointing however, as there appears to be disagreement between coalition partners on the size and composition of stimulus.  Finance Minister Hatoyama was expected to announce additional spending of up to JPY 4 trillion.  

There was no surprise that the ECB left the refi rate unchanged at 1% yesterday but some surprise in the steps to withdraw provision.  The ECB announced that the interest rate on the December 12-month tender will be indexed to the refi rate and that the full allotment at most of the ECB’s refinancing operations is extended until 13 April 2010 only. As much as ECB President Trichet tried to play down the perception that the steps were a signal of a tighter policy markets are unlikely to interpret it this way. 

Despite the shift in the ECB’s stance EUR/USD pared gains after reaching a high around 1.5141 but failed to test resistance at 1.5150 which is likely to provide strong resistance in the days ahead, reflecting the fact that markets had priced in a hawkish shift by the ECB already.   Going forward, if the market perceives the ECB as prematurely shifting towards a more hawkish stance against the EUR could suffer rather than find any support from such actions

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