The third quarter of 2009 has proven to be another negative one for the US dollar. Over the period the dollar index fell by over 4%. The only major currency to lose ground against the dollar over this period was the British pound. Most other currencies, especially the so called “risk currencies” which had come under huge pressure at the height of the financial crisis, registered strong gains led by the New Zealand dollar, Swedish krona and Australian dollar. Although the euro also strengthened against the dollar it lagged gains in other currencies over the quarter.
Asian currencies also registered gains against the dollar in Q3 but to a lesser extent than G10 currencies. Asian currency appreciation was led by the Korean won, Indonesian rupiah and Singapore dollar, respectively. The under performer over Q3 was the Indian rupee which actually depreciated against the US dollar slightly. The reason for the smaller pace of appreciation for most Asian currencies was due mainly to intervention by Asian central banks to prevent their respective currencies from strengthening too rapidly, rather than due to any inherent weakness in sentiment.
In fact, Asian currencies would likely be much stronger if it wasn’t for such FX interventions. A good indication of the upward pressure on Asian currencies can be found from looking at the strength of capital inflows into local stock markets over recent months. South Korea has registered the most equity capital inflows so far this year, with close to $20 billion of flows into Korean equities year to date but in general most Asian stock markets have registered far stronger inflows compared with last year.
For the most part, balance of payments positions are also strong. For example, South Korea recorded a current account surplus of $28.15 billion so far this year, compared to a deficit of $12.58bn over the same period last year. This is echoed across the region. Although surpluses are expected to narrow over coming months due mainly to a deterioration in the terms of trade, the overall health of external positions across the region will remain strong and supportive of further currency appreciation.
The outlook for the final quarter of 2009 is therefore likely to be positive for Asian currencies, with the US dollar set to weaken further against most currencies. Some risk will come from a potential reversal in global equity market sentiment but overall, further improvements in risk appetite will support capital inflows into the region. Capital will be attracted by the fact that growth in Asia will continue to out perform the rest of the world and yet again only interventions by central banks will prevent a more rapid appreciation of Asian currencies.