Position Unwinding Boosts USD

The USD’s multi-month fall has come to an abrupt halt, with the currency registering gains in reaction to what appears to be a major position unwinding across asset markets, led by a drop in commodity prices.

Will it continue? Whilst I am amongst the more bullish forecasters on the USD over the medium term, the current rally could prove to be short-lived in the absence of a shift in Federal Reserve rhetoric or end to quantitative easing (QE2). Nonetheless, the market had got itself very short USDs (as reflected in the CFTC IMM data as of early last week which showed an increase in net short positions) and the rally in the USD last week was likely spurred by major short-covering which could extend further into this week.

The move in the USD gained momentum as European Central Bank (ECB) President Trichet proved to be less hawkish than many expected in the press conference following last Thursday’s ECB meeting. Moreover, renewed worries about Greece at the end of last week, with a report in the German Der Spiegel, later denied by Greek officials, that the country was planning to leave the Eurozone dented the EUR,

Taken together with the improving trend in US April non-farm payrolls (April registered +244k increase, with private payrolls 268k), these factors colluded to provide further positive stimulus to the USD and negative fallout on the EUR. The room for EUR downside is evident in the net long EUR speculative position, which rose to its highest since December 2007 as of 3rd May.

This week’s batch of US releases including March trade data, April retail sales and CPI, are unlikely to result in a reversal in last week’s trend though a trend like reading for core CPI, with the annual rate below the Fed’s comfort zone will reinforce expectations of dovish Fed policy being maintained, which could inject a dose of caution into the USD’s rally.

Against the background of a likely widening in the US trade deficit in March there will plenty of attention on the annual strategic and economic dialogue beginning today, with markets interested in discussions on Chinese worries about the gaping US fiscal deficit and US concerns about China’s exchange rate policy.

Greece’s denial of plans to leave the eurozone and discussions over a further adjustment to Greece’s bail out package, may help limit any drop in the EUR this week though it will by no means mark the end of such speculation about the periphery especially with this weeks’ Q1 GDP data releases across the eurozone likely to further highlight the divergence between the core and the periphery even if the headline eurozone reading rebounds strongly as we expect.

In the UK the Bank of England Quarterly Inflation Report will be the main influence on GBP. Downward growth revisions will play into the view that inflation will eventually moderate, capping expectation of higher interest rates over the coming months. However, the likely upward revision to near term inflation forecasts will help limit any damage to GBP.

GBP has lost ground to the USD but it should be noted that it has outperformed the EUR over recent days, reversing some of the recent run up in EUR/GBP. Given that EUR sentiment is likely to remain fragile this week, GBP may continue to capitalise, with a test of EUR/GBP 0.8672 on the cards.

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