Indian markets rejoiced in a big way following the outcome of the elections which put the secular Congress party back into power as the head of the United Progressive Alliance. Stocks in India rose by a massive 17% and the rupee strengthened as markets gave a huge thumbs up to the outcome. The margin of victory was bigger than had been expected and allows Congress to form a government with only minimal help from outside parties.
Given that many had feared that the election would result in another unstable coalition supported by diverse parties each acting in their own interests, the outcome was very positive. In the event the result provides Congress with a strong mandate for change and reform. The real question is whether they will grasp the opportunity or let it slip by and fall further behind into the shadow of China.
There are of course many challenges that need to be faced on the home front including the alleviation of poverty for a huge chunk of the population, improving education, access to health care etc. India also needs to move ahead with infrastructure spending, something which remains key to unlocking India’s potential growth and moving towards the pace of growth achieved by China. As a comparison India spends around 6% of GDP on infrastructure spending compared to around 15% in China. The results of such spending are obvious when looking at the pace of growth of both countries, with India growing relatively more slowly than China.
The issue is that even if the government has the mandate and the will to move forward with long awaited spending on infrastrucure, finding the money is the main problem. The Indian government identified the need for $500 billion in infrastructure spending between 2007 and 2012 but the global financial crisis has seen a lot of potential investment disappear as banks bec0me increasingly strapped for cash and foreign investment shrinks due to lack of funding and an aversion to risk. Restrictions on investments by funds that could potentially invest have also not helped whilst the government is limited in its spending by a huge fiscal deficit.
The Congress party will need to grasp the opportunity that the election result has brought it and move forward to entice the investment needed to push forward with infrastructure plans. One of the benefits of India’s slow pace of reform and gradual opening up of the economy is that the country has avoided the worst of the global economic crisis. Even China will find it a huge challenge to shift its growth engine from export orientated growth to domestic consumption. India is in a good position to take advantage of its relative resilience and now has a government with a strong mandate to do so. It would be a great pity for India and the rest of the world, given the potential for the country to become a much stronger trading power, if the government did not take this opportunity by the horns once the celebrations are over. If not, the rally in Indian markets may prove to have been a fleeting one.