China’s economy slows…what to watch this week

The week has started off with attention firmly fixed on Chinese data. In the event, second quarter (Q2) growth domestic product (GDP) came in at 6.2% year-on-year (y/y) following a 6.4% increase in the previous quarter, matching market expectations.  However, higher frequency Chinese data for June released at the same time looked far better, with industrial production up 6.3% y/y (market 5.2% y/y), retail sales up 9.8% y/y (market 8.5%) and fixed assets investment up 5.8% YTD y/y (market 5.5%).

Although growth in China has slowed to its weakest in many years, this was well flagged in advance and the GDP data is backward looking in any case.  The other data released today as well as increases in new loans and aggregate financing data released last week, suggest less urgency for fresh stimulus.  Overall, markets will be relieved by the fact that higher frequency data is holding up, but hopes of more aggressive stimulus in the near term may be dashed.

Attention elsewhere this week will focus on data and central banks.  After last week’s testimonies from Fed Chair Powell, during which he cemented expectations of a quarter percent from the Fed at the end of this month, attention in the US this well will be on June retail sales data where the consensus looks for a weaker 0.1% m/m increase in headline and ex-autos sales.   Further comments from Fed speakers will also garner attention, with Powell and New York Fed President Williams, likely to maintain market expectations of Fed easing.

Emerging Markets central banks will also be in focus, with monetary policy easing expected in South Africa, Indonesia and South Korea as central banks take the cue from the Fed.  Declining inflation pressure, weaker domestic growth, will also add support to further policy easing.  Stronger currencies in South Africa and Indonesia provide further impetus to cut rates.  I expect many emerging market central banks, especially in Asia, to ease policy in the weeks ahead, for similar reasons as above.

Watch me Guest Host on CNBC Asia tomorrow morning from 8-9am Singapore time where I will discuss these and other topics in more detail. 

Fed’s Powell, China trade, Japan-Korea tensions

Markets cheered Fed Chair Powell’s testimony to the US Congress this week, with Powell all but confirming that the Fed will cut interest rates in the US by 25bps later this month.  Powell’s comments yesterday and Wednesday highlighted the risks to the US economy including the threats from persistently low inflation, worsening global trade outlook, weak global growth, and possibility that Congress does not raise the debt ceiling, even as he saw “the economy as being in a good place”.  His comments highlight that any easing this month, would be an insurance cut, but markets are expecting the Fed to ease further in the months ahead, with at least one more priced in by the market this year.

Meanwhile attention remains focused on trade tensions. On this front, president Trump complained overnight that China hasn’t increased its purchases of US farm products, something that he said China had pledged to do at the G20 meeting when he met with China’s President Xi.  Data released yesterday showed that Chinese purchases of US agricultural good have actually slowed.  According to the US department of Agriculture China bought 127,800 metric tons of US soybeans last week and 76 tons of US pork, both sharp reductions compared to previous weeks.  Chinese media for its part says that the country had not committed to increasing purchases, but rather that Trump had hoped China would buy more goods.  Clearly, there is has left plenty of confusion about what was actually agreed upon.

Trade tensions have also risen in Asia, with tensions between South Korea and Japan intensifying.  Japan is implementing restrictions on exports to Korea of chemicals essential for chip making in retaliation over a ruling by Korea’s Supreme court awarding damages against Japanese companies for forced labour during the second world war. Japan says that such claims were settled under a 1965 treaty and is seeking arbitration. Korea evidently disagrees. The trade spat could also have widespread implications given the wide range of products that South Korean chips are used in, impacting supply chains globally.  Meetings between Japanese and Korean officials today will be watched for any rapprochement but any near term solution looks unlikely.

Fed’s Powell & China trade data in focus

US jobs data released at the end of last week will diminish hopes of more aggressive policy rate cuts from the Fed FOMC at its policy meeting at the end of the month. Non-farm payrolls rose by 224,000 last month, beating market forecasts, a sharp improvement from the disappointing 72,000 increase in the previous month.

Despite the stronger than expected reading in June, the Fed is still likely to cut interest rates by 25 basis points amid concerns about a loss of growth momentum, trade tensions against the background of low inflation.  Soft US June CPI releases on Thursday this week will likely confirm the subdued inflationary backdrop.

Markets will be able to garner more clues during Fed Chair Powell’s testimony to Congress on Wednesday and Thursday while Fed FOMC minutes from the last meeting will also provide greater detail on Fed thinking.  Both are likely to help confirm expectations of a 25 basis point cut in rates at the next FOMC meeting.

The USD has recovered some if recent losses, helped at the end of last week but the US jobs report.  Further gains are likely to be limited (with the USD index likely to struggle to break 98.0) though much will depend on Powell’s testimony this week.

Also in focus this week will be China’s June trade data.  This data will be scrutinised in particular, for the trade surplus with the US and whether there are any signs of this surplus beginning to narrow.  The data will also give some indications of the health of China’s economy, with another weak print for imports, likely to show further softening in China’s growth momentum. Similarly weaker exports will highlight the softening in demand from key trading partners such as Korea.

Further evidence on the outlook for China’s economy will be seen in the release of monetary aggregates including new loan growth and aggregate financing. Meanwhile, China’s currency continues to remain stable amid the trade truce with the US.

 

Waiting For US Jobs Data

Ahead of the US jobs report later today and following a lack of leads from US markets after the 4th July Independence Day holiday, markets are likely to tread water, at least until the employment report is released.  However, there are plenty of factors lurking in the background including the ongoing US-China trade war, US-Iran geopolitical tensions, and growing trade spat between Korea and Japan.

Markets continue to be supported by expectations of monetary easing globally.  This week, bond markets have continued to rally, helped by President Trump’s nomination of July Shelton and Christopher Waller for the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, both of which are considered dovish.  Separately, markets applauded the backing of Christine Lagarde to lead the European Central Bank after weeks of wrangling by European leaders.

Immediate attention will be on the US June jobs data.  Market expectations are for a 160,000 increase in non-farm payrolls, unemployment rate at 3.6% and average earnings growth of 0.3% compared to the previous month, 3.2% compared to the year earlier.  Anything much worse, for example an outcome below 100k would likely lead to an intensification of expectations that the Fed FOMC will cut by as much as 50 basis points later this month.  An outcome around consensus would likely result in a 25bp easing by the Fed FOMC.

Separately trade tensions between Japan and Korea have intensified. Japan is implementing restrictions on exports to Korea of chemicals essential for chip making. Japan is Korea’s fourth largest export market. The new approval process required by Japanese exporters of three semiconductor industry chemicals will hit Korea’s tech industry at a time when it is already suffering.  The trade spat could also have widespread implications given the wide range of products that South Korean chips are used in, impacting supply chains globally.

Australian dollar rallies, Korean won bounces back

On the currency front, the best performers so far this year have been an odd combination of JPY, NZD and AUD versus USD. JPY has benefitted from both compressed yield differentials with the US and risk aversion but its gains are likely to reverse over the coming weeks as these factors reverse.

I have been generally more constructive on AUD and NZD than the consensus and remain so. Both AUD and NZD look oversold and will gradually appreciate further, especially as both the RBA and RBNZ have now likely ended their easing cycles, with the latter set to raise policy rates by the end of this quarter. AUD/USD breached 0.90 this morning helped by a strong business confidence reading for January.

Most Asian currencies have rebounded so far this month, with some of the biggest losers over January recording gains. The KRW has been the best performer in February recording gains despite continued outflows of equity capital. Korea has recorded $1.26 billion in equity outflows so far this month, the highest among Asian countries.

In contrast bond inflows into Korea have been relatively solid over January and this continued into February, helping to provide some support to KRW despite equity outflows. Helping the KRW is the fact that is much less sensitive to US bond yields than many other Asian currencies helping it to avoid any fallout from higher US yields in February. USD/KRW is on path for a break below support around 1070.

Asian currencies under pressure

The close to 1% drop in the USD index over recent days is misleading in terms of the USD’s performance against emerging market currencies where it has registered strong gains. For example the ADXY (Asian USD index) has dropped to its lowest level since early September 2013 and looks set to decline further as Asian currencies face more pressure. The best performers in this environment are traditional safe havens, especially JPY and CHF while the EUR and Scandinavian currencies have also capitalised on the weaker USD.

The drop in the USD against many major currencies reflects the fact that positioning had reached extreme levels prior to the sharp moves at the end of last week. For instance, net long USD speculative positions (according to the CFTC IMM data) had risen to the highest level since June 2013 while in contrast EUR positioning had dropped to its lowest since July 2013. The subsequent position adjustment will have proved to be a healthy correction that will set the USD up for an eventual rebound and the EUR for a sell off.

The sharp drop in US Treasury yields will undermine the USD further in the near term, however, and the mixed slate of US data releases will offer the currency little assistance. Nonetheless, the USD is expected to stay firm against Asian currencies. Notably capital flows from Asian equity markets have increased over recent weeks, with Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand on track to register outflows for the first month of the year. Against this background it is unsurprising that both the KRW and PHP are the two worst performing Asian currencies so far this year. While I expect a reversal in both, the near term outlook is for further pressure.

JPY selling momentum slows

Markets have few leads to trade off following yesterday’s President’s Day holiday in the US. Nonetheless, caution appears to be settling in ahead of this weekend’s Italian elections, especially in Europe.

European Central Bank President Draghi’s address to the EU parliament did little to stir markets as he didn’t elaborate much on his post ECB press conference in February. The most notable comment was that he urged the G20 to have very “strong verbal discipline” on talking about currency movements.

Despite the Italian election caution most risk measures appear to be well behaved. Equity volatility has continued to drop and gold prices have stabilised following the recent sharp decline. The highlight of the data calendar today is a likely gain in the February German ZEW survey.

Currency markets are rangebound but it is notable that USD/JPY has struggled to sustain gains above the 94.00 level, with upward momentum in the currency pair appearing to fade. Comments by Japan’s Finance Minister Aso that the government was not considering changing the central bank law at present or buying foreign bonds helped to dampen USD/JPY.

Although the G20 meeting effectively gave the green light for further JPY declines, a lot is in the price in terms of policy expectations and any further JPY weakness is likely to be much more gradual. USD/JPY 94.46 will offer strong resistance to further upside.

Asian currencies continue to deliver a mixed performance, with JPY sensitive currencies including SGD, KRW and TWD remaining on the back foot. The SGD is the most highly correlated Asian currency with JPY, with a high and significant correlation between the two. Any further drop in JPY will clearly bode badly for SGD but the inability of the JPY to weaken further may help to moderate pressure on the SGD in the near term.

Although the KRW has rebounded over recent days one risk to the currency is continued outflows of equity portfolio capital. South Korea is one of the only countries in Asia to have recorded outflows (around USD 1.2 billion year to date). However, this month the outflow appears to have reversed, with around USD 500 million in inflows registered month to date. In part the outflows of equity capital from South Korea in January reflected concerns about North Korea. Such concerns have receded but the risks remain of more sabre rattling and/or more nuclear tests from the North.

%d bloggers like this: