Tariffs Implemented, Talks Awaited

US and China went ahead with their tariffs implementation over the weekend, with the US adding 15% tariffs on around $110bn of Chinese imports, mainly aimed at consumer goods. Another $160bn of goods will be hit by 15% tariffs on December 15, with the implementation delayed to avoid a big impact on holiday spending.

China retaliated by implementing $75bn of tariffs on US goods on Sunday, much of which was aimed at agricultural goods including 10% on various meat, an additional 5% on top of the existing 25% on soybeans and a further 10% on sorghum and cotton and 5% on crude oil.  Chinese tariffs on US autos will resume in December.  China’s currency is likely to continue to weaken further given the tariffs intensification.

Against this background markets will closely monitor comments from both China and the US on the potential for trade talks over coming weeks, with President Trump stating that face to face talks are “still on”.  Meanwhile Chinese economic data continues to worsen, with China’s official August manufacturing PMI released on Saturday dropping to 49.5 in August from 49.7 in July, indicating ongoing contraction in China’s manufacturing sector.

There are plenty of events and data on tap this week including the August US ISM manufacturing survey, August non-farm payrolls and a slew of Fed speakers including Fed Chairman Powell.   The ISM index is forecast to remain steady around 51.2, reflecting the pressure on US manufacturers, although the index is still likely to remain in expansion.  Meanwhile consensus forecasts look for a 158k increase in August payrolls and for the unemployment rate to remain at 3.7%.

Events in the UK will also garner plenty of interest as parliament returns from their summer break, albeit only for a few days as Parliament will be prorogued in the following week.  The opposition Labour Party will aim to present legislation to prevent the country from crashing out of the EU without a deal against the background of protests against the decision to suspend parliament.  The potential for fresh elections is also in prospect.  GBP will remain volatile against this background.

Advertisements

US-China Trade War: The Gloves Are Off

The US-China trade war took another step for the worse over the weekend. China announced tariffs on the US of between 5- 10% on $75bn of US imports from September.  Chinese tariffs target 5,078 products including agriculture and small aircraft as well as crude oil. The US responded by increasing its tariffs on $250bn of Chinese imports from 25% to 30% while increasing duties from 10% to 15% on $300bn of Chinese imports to the US from September 1.   President Trump initially said he had “second thoughts” on additional tariffs, but these were clarified to state that “he regrets not raising the tariffs higher”.

The gloves are off on both sides. As indicated by the editorial in China’s People’s Daily states that China will fight the trade war to the end while influential Chinese journalist Hu Xijin said that “we have nothing more to lose, while the US is starting to lose China”, highlights China’s tougher stance.  Meanwhile President Trump is looking at the “Emergency Economic Powers Act of 1977” in forcing US companies to quit China.

Asia’s markets have responded in pain, with stocks and currencies falling while safe havens such as US Treasuries have been in demand.  Indeed the 10-year US Treasury yield has fallen to a three-year low.  Markets have priced in even further easing by the Fed FOMC, with almost three rate cuts by the PBoC discounted in by the end of this year.  Equity futures point to a weak opening in US equities today.

One casualty is the Chinese yuan, which took another leg lower today, having fallen by close to 7% since mid-April.  Further pressure on the yuan is likely, but China may not be too concerned as long as the pace of weakness does not get out of hand. China may try to control the pace of the decline to prevent a repeat of the FX reserves drain seen in mid-2015 and Jan 2016. At the least yuan depreciation will act as a buffer for Chinese exporters against increased US tariffs.  However, expect further yuan depreciation to be met with increased criticism and perhaps more US action, with the US already having labeled China a currency manipulator.

A Host Of Global Risks

Last week was a tumultuous one to say the least.  It’s been a long time since so many risk factors have come together at the same time.  The list is a long one and includes the escalation of the US-China trade war, which last week saw President Trump announce further tariffs on the remaining $300bn of Chinese exports to the US that do not already have tariffs levied on them, a break of USDCNY 7.00 and the US officially naming China as a currency manipulator.

The list of risk factors afflicting sentiment also includes intensifying Japan-Korea trade tensions, growing potential for a no-deal Brexit, demonstrations in Hong Kong, risks of a fresh election in Italy, growing fears of another Argentina default, ongoing tensions with Iran and escalating tensions between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.

All of this is taking place against the background of weakening global growth, with officials globally cutting their growth forecasts and sharply lower yields in G10 bond markets.  The latest country to miss its growth estimates is Singapore, a highly trade driven economy and bellwether of global trade, which today slashed its GDP forecasts.

Central banks are reacting by easing policy.  Last week, the New Zealand’s RBNZ, cut its policy rate by a bigger than expected 50 basis points, India cut its policy rate by a bigger than expected 35 basis points and Thailand surprisingly cutting by 25 basis points.  More rate cuts/policy easing is in the pipeline globally in the weeks and months ahead, with all eyes on the next moves by the Fed.  Moving into focus in this respect will be the Jackson Hole central bankers’ symposium on 22/23 August and Fed FOMC minutes on 21 August.

After the abrupt and sharp depreciation in China’s currency CNY, last week and break of USDCNY 7.00 there is evidence that China wants to control/slow the pace of depreciation to avoid a repeat, even as the overall path of the currency remains a weaker one. Firstly, CNY fixings have been generally stronger than expected over recent days and secondly, the spread between CNY and CNH has widened sharply, with the former stronger than the latter by a wider margin than usual.  Thirdly, comments from Chinese officials suggest that they are no keen on sharp pace of depreciation.

Markets will remain on tenterhooks given all the factors above and it finally seems that equity markets are succumbing to pressure, with stocks broadly lower over the last month, even as gains for the year remain relatively healthy.  The US dollar has remained a beneficiary of higher risk aversion though safe havens including Japanese yen and Swiss Franc are the main gainers in line with the move into safe assets globally.  Unfortunately there is little chance of any turnaround anytime soon given the potential for any one or more of the above risk factors to worsen.

What To Watch This Week

Market expectations for Fed FOMC interest rate cuts have gyrated back and forth following a recent speech by NY Fed President Williams, one of the key decision makers within the Fed FOMC. He appeared to support a 50bps rate cut at the meeting at the end of the month, but unusually this was clarified later.  If anything, as the clarification may suggest, the bigger probability is that the Fed eases policy by 25bps in an insurance cut.

There will be no Fed speakers in the days ahead but the Fed will assess developments this week in helping to determine the magnitude of easing. Attention will continue to centre on US earnings, with more than a quarter of S&P 500 companies reporting Q2 earnings this week.   On the data front, US Q2 GDP and July durable goods orders will command most attention.  The consensus looks for a slowing in GDP growth to 1.8% q/q in Q1 from 3.1% q/q in Q1 while durable goods orders are expected to increase by 0.7% m/m.

A major central bank in action this week is the European Central Bank on Thursday. While policy easing is unlikely at this meeting, the ECB is likely to set to set the market up for an easing in deposit rates at the September meeting.  ECB President Draghi could do this by strengthening his forward guidance, but as a lot of this is priced in by the market, a dovish sounding Draghi is unlikely to weigh too much on the EUR.

In the UK this week it’s all about politics. Boris Johnson is widely expected to be announced as the new Prime Minister.  GBPUSD has clung onto the 1.25 handle, as worries about a no deal Brexit continue to impact sentiment towards the currency.  Once Johnson is sworn in he and the government could face a no confidence motion, which could gain support should it be seen as an alternative to the UK crashing out of the EU.

National elections in Japan yesterday resulted in a victory according to Japanese press for Shinzo Abe’s coalition, its sixth straight victory, with the governing LDP winning over half the 124 seats. The results were no surprise, and unlikely to have a significant market impact, but notably Abe suffered a setback by not gaining a supermajority. He therefore cannot change the country’s pacifist constitution.

In emerging markets, both Russia and Turkey are likely to cut interest rates this week, with Russia predicted to cut its key rate by 25bp and Turkey to cut by at least 200bps if not more.  Elsewhere geopolitical tensions will remain a major focus for markets, as tensions between the UK and Iran intensify.

China’s economy slows…what to watch this week

The week has started off with attention firmly fixed on Chinese data. In the event, second quarter (Q2) growth domestic product (GDP) came in at 6.2% year-on-year (y/y) following a 6.4% increase in the previous quarter, matching market expectations.  However, higher frequency Chinese data for June released at the same time looked far better, with industrial production up 6.3% y/y (market 5.2% y/y), retail sales up 9.8% y/y (market 8.5%) and fixed assets investment up 5.8% YTD y/y (market 5.5%).

Although growth in China has slowed to its weakest in many years, this was well flagged in advance and the GDP data is backward looking in any case.  The other data released today as well as increases in new loans and aggregate financing data released last week, suggest less urgency for fresh stimulus.  Overall, markets will be relieved by the fact that higher frequency data is holding up, but hopes of more aggressive stimulus in the near term may be dashed.

Attention elsewhere this week will focus on data and central banks.  After last week’s testimonies from Fed Chair Powell, during which he cemented expectations of a quarter percent from the Fed at the end of this month, attention in the US this well will be on June retail sales data where the consensus looks for a weaker 0.1% m/m increase in headline and ex-autos sales.   Further comments from Fed speakers will also garner attention, with Powell and New York Fed President Williams, likely to maintain market expectations of Fed easing.

Emerging Markets central banks will also be in focus, with monetary policy easing expected in South Africa, Indonesia and South Korea as central banks take the cue from the Fed.  Declining inflation pressure, weaker domestic growth, will also add support to further policy easing.  Stronger currencies in South Africa and Indonesia provide further impetus to cut rates.  I expect many emerging market central banks, especially in Asia, to ease policy in the weeks ahead, for similar reasons as above.

Watch me Guest Host on CNBC Asia tomorrow morning from 8-9am Singapore time where I will discuss these and other topics in more detail. 

Fed’s Powell, China trade, Japan-Korea tensions

Markets cheered Fed Chair Powell’s testimony to the US Congress this week, with Powell all but confirming that the Fed will cut interest rates in the US by 25bps later this month.  Powell’s comments yesterday and Wednesday highlighted the risks to the US economy including the threats from persistently low inflation, worsening global trade outlook, weak global growth, and possibility that Congress does not raise the debt ceiling, even as he saw “the economy as being in a good place”.  His comments highlight that any easing this month, would be an insurance cut, but markets are expecting the Fed to ease further in the months ahead, with at least one more priced in by the market this year.

Meanwhile attention remains focused on trade tensions. On this front, president Trump complained overnight that China hasn’t increased its purchases of US farm products, something that he said China had pledged to do at the G20 meeting when he met with China’s President Xi.  Data released yesterday showed that Chinese purchases of US agricultural good have actually slowed.  According to the US department of Agriculture China bought 127,800 metric tons of US soybeans last week and 76 tons of US pork, both sharp reductions compared to previous weeks.  Chinese media for its part says that the country had not committed to increasing purchases, but rather that Trump had hoped China would buy more goods.  Clearly, there is has left plenty of confusion about what was actually agreed upon.

Trade tensions have also risen in Asia, with tensions between South Korea and Japan intensifying.  Japan is implementing restrictions on exports to Korea of chemicals essential for chip making in retaliation over a ruling by Korea’s Supreme court awarding damages against Japanese companies for forced labour during the second world war. Japan says that such claims were settled under a 1965 treaty and is seeking arbitration. Korea evidently disagrees. The trade spat could also have widespread implications given the wide range of products that South Korean chips are used in, impacting supply chains globally.  Meetings between Japanese and Korean officials today will be watched for any rapprochement but any near term solution looks unlikely.

Waiting For US Jobs Data

Ahead of the US jobs report later today and following a lack of leads from US markets after the 4th July Independence Day holiday, markets are likely to tread water, at least until the employment report is released.  However, there are plenty of factors lurking in the background including the ongoing US-China trade war, US-Iran geopolitical tensions, and growing trade spat between Korea and Japan.

Markets continue to be supported by expectations of monetary easing globally.  This week, bond markets have continued to rally, helped by President Trump’s nomination of July Shelton and Christopher Waller for the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, both of which are considered dovish.  Separately, markets applauded the backing of Christine Lagarde to lead the European Central Bank after weeks of wrangling by European leaders.

Immediate attention will be on the US June jobs data.  Market expectations are for a 160,000 increase in non-farm payrolls, unemployment rate at 3.6% and average earnings growth of 0.3% compared to the previous month, 3.2% compared to the year earlier.  Anything much worse, for example an outcome below 100k would likely lead to an intensification of expectations that the Fed FOMC will cut by as much as 50 basis points later this month.  An outcome around consensus would likely result in a 25bp easing by the Fed FOMC.

Separately trade tensions between Japan and Korea have intensified. Japan is implementing restrictions on exports to Korea of chemicals essential for chip making. Japan is Korea’s fourth largest export market. The new approval process required by Japanese exporters of three semiconductor industry chemicals will hit Korea’s tech industry at a time when it is already suffering.  The trade spat could also have widespread implications given the wide range of products that South Korean chips are used in, impacting supply chains globally.

%d bloggers like this: