Strong US Jobs Data And Hawkish Fed Speak Keeps Tightening Expectations Elevated

US bond yields rose sharply on Friday, particularly on the front end of the curve in the wake of the above consensus US July jobs report, which showed a strong 528,000 (consensus 250,000) increase in non-farm payrolls and the unemployment rate dropping to 3.5% (consensus 3.6%).  The three-month moving average of US jobs gains now total 437,000. However, the drop in the unemployment rate was due in part to a drop in the participation rate so it wasn’t all good news.  Wage growth was firm, with average hourly earnings up 5.2% y/y. Overall the data highlighted a still strong jobs market and markets are now pricing in a greater probability of 75 basis points hike by the Federal Reserve at its September meeting. 

The firm US jobs data accompanied hawkish Fed speak over the past week, with various Fed officials pushing back against more dovish rate expectations that had been built into markets over recent weeks. The Fed’s Evans, Kashkari and Daly are scheduled to speak this week and are likely to maintain the run of hawkish Fed comments, pushing back against residual expectation of an early peak in the Fed Funds rate. Despite weaker closes for equities on Friday, stocks still ended higher over the week, but may struggle given the renewed hawkish shift in rate expectations.  That said, with the bulk of second quarter earnings out of the way equities have held up well. 

The data and Fed speakers also give further reason to be cautious on extrapolating the recent pull back in the US dollar, with the currency bouncing at the end of the week and starting this week on a firm note.  The USD index has bounced off trend line support and has bounced off its 50-day moving average level, which has been a good support over recent months.  In the near term some consolidation in the USD is likely though this week’s US CPI inflation report is likely to provide more direction.  Conversely, while the euro appears to have found a short-term bottom, it’s hard to see a significant bounce in the currency. 

Data over the weekend revealed a stronger than expected increase in Chinese exports in July at 18% y/y (cons. 14.1%) and lower imports at 2.3% y/y (cons. 4.0%), resulting in a surge in the trade surplus to $101.26bn (cons. $89.04bn).  The weak imports data highlights ongoing pressure on domestic demand while exports will likely struggle to maintain firm momentum amid a likely slowing in external demand.  China’s July inflation data this will be in focus (Wed) this week while more reaction by China to last week’s visit by Speaker to Pelosi to Taiwan will also be expected. 

In the US, the key data will be the July CPI report (Wed); the consensus expects elevated readings of 8.7%/6.1% y/y for total/core prices.  Headline CPI will have moderated from June, but core CPI is likely to have ticked higher.  Long term inflation expectations as measured in the University of Michigan August confidence survey (Fri) will also be in focus.  On the policy rate front, a 25bp hike from the Bank of Thailand kicks of its tightening cycle (Wed) and a 75bp hike from Mexico’s central bank, Banxico.  However, unlike Thailand Banxico is likely nearing the end of its tightening cycle.   

Will The Fed Hike By 50bp? Asia Singing To Its Own Tune

The outsized gain in the US January CPI inflation rate has firmly put a 50 basis points (bp) Federal Reserve rate hike on the table as well as reinforcing expectations of a series of consecutive rate hikes while St Louis Fed President Bullard even raised the prospect of an inter-meeting hike in the wake of the CPI data.  Markets are now pricing close to 7 hikes in 2022 and 80% odds of a 50bp hike in March. 

US CPI inflation jumped to 7.5% y/y, a 40-year high, with prices rising by 0.6% m/m and core CPI rising to 6% y/y, all above consensus.  In the wake of the data Bullard strengthened his hawkish rhetoric by saying that he would like to see 100bp of hikes by July 1 2022.  Markets have quickly ramped up their expectations for Fed tightening, with a growing chorus expecting a series of consecutive hikes.

Markets are reacting badly, with equities under renewed pressure, bond yields moving higher and the US dollar firming.  It’s hard to see such pressure easing anytime soon.  Historically the bulk of market pressure takes place as the market prices in / discounts rate hikes rather than after the Fed actually hikes.  This suggests that markets will remain highly nervous at least until the March Federal Reserve FOMC meeting. 

It is clear that the data is killing off any chance of a more tepid pace of US monetary tightening. The Fed alongside other major central banks are frantically trying to regain credibility in the wake of much stronger inflation readings than they had anticipated by espousing increasingly hawkish rhetoric, which will likely soon be followed with action as policy rates increase and central bank balance sheets start to shrink. 

There is now a growing probability that the Fed will kick off its monetary tightening with a 50bp rate hike followed by consecutive hikes in the months ahead as well as quantitative tightening in the second quarter.  It’s not quite a done deal but another strong US inflation print for February will seal the case for a 50bp hike in March.

In contrast, Asia monetary policy is singing to its own tune.  Unlike in past tightening cycles when Asian central banks were forced to tighten to avoid pressure on their markets, especially to avoid currency weakness, there is limited signs of such pressures at present.  Some in Asia such as the Bank of Korea and Monetary Authority of Singapore have tightened already, but this is largely due to domestic factors rather than the Fed.

The stark difference in stance between Asian central banks and what is being priced in for the Fed has been particularly apparent by the recent dovish policy decisions in India, Indonesia, and Thailand, with all three central banks showing no urgency to tighten.  Similarly, the Bank of Japan acting to defend its yield curve policy by conducting unlimited fixed-rate JGB purchases, was clearly a dovish move.  Last but not least, the PBoC, China’s central bank has already cut its policy Loan Prime Rate and is likely to do so again in the next few months.  

India’s Covid Worsening, Central Banks and US Data

A number of holidays this week points to quieter week for markets.  However, as I note below, there are still a number of risk events on the horizon. 

A growing focus is the divergent trend in the path of Covid in emerging markets and in developed economies, with the former especially in some parts of Asia, Latin America and Africa, seeing a significant worsening, which will likely result in delayed recoveries and lead to some EM asset market underperformance. 

India’s Covid situation worsens dramatically

As all the headlines show, India’s Covid situation has become particularly dire though a lack of large-scale lockdowns has led to only a limited mark down in growth forecasts there even as risks intensify.  Already there has been a political cost, with Indian PM Modi’s BJP party losing a key state election in West Bengal and losing ground in other state elections.  Virus cases are still on the rise and sadly the picture will worsen before there are any signs of improvement.  

Covid cases in India have been trending higher since February and hit record highs this weekend, above 400,000. The number of cases is approaching 20 million, with over 215k deaths, while the country has administered 157.2 million vaccine doses.  However, at the current rate of vaccination of 2.26 million per day, it will take 2.2 years to cover 75% of the population with a two-dose vaccine. 

US dollar consolidating

After losing ground in April (the USD index DXY fell close to 3% over the month) the US dollar (USD) looks likely to consolidate this month.  USD positioning has already improved over recent months, suggesting limited scope for short covering.  Seasonal factors are unlikely to be particularly influential this month.  However, I am cognizant that cross asset market volatility has eased significantly, while risk assets are already priced for a lot of good news.  Nonetheless, risk factors are increasingly rising, especially increasing Covid cases in many emerging markets as noted above.  This leaves the market prone to bouts of risk aversion, which could result in some bouts of USD strength amid an overall backdrop of consolidation.

Key data and events

This week is an important one for both data and events.  There are several central bank decisions including in Australia (Tue), Thailand and Poland (Wed), Malaysia, UK, Turkey, and Brazil (Thu).  None of the central banks are expected to change policy settings except Brazil, with the consensus looking for a 75bp hike there.  In the UK, there is uncertainty over the future path of QE and whether the Bank of England extends asset purchases or takes the first steps to bringing asset purchases to an end echoing the Bank of Canada by announcing tapering. 

On the data front, the main highlights include the US ISM surveys (today and Wed), US April jobs report (Fri) and China trade data.  Both the US ISM surveys and payrolls are likely to reveal robust readings.  Fiscal stimulus and easing Covid likely helped to boost US jobs growth in April while the unemployment rate likely fell.  Meanwhile the ISM surveys will likely remain around historical highs for similar reasons.  Overall, the data will continue to paint a picture of strengthening US economic recovery. Meanwhile China trade data is likely to reveal strong exports and imports growth, though much of this will likely be due to base effects.

Chinese Data Softens

It was a tough week for risk assets last week as stocks dropped, volatility increased and the battle between retail investors and hedge funds intensified, with the latter on the losing side. The end of the week saw US and European stocks drop.  Whether the decline in stocks is due to over extended valuations, vaccine variants, vaccine supply pressures, weak activity data or more likely a combination of all of these, asset markets go into this week on a more unstable footing, with risks skewed towards pull back extending further.  It’s hard to blame day traders for the drop given that most of activity from retail traders is buying of stocks, and now silver, with heavy short position, but they are likely contributing to the rise in volatility.  The US dollar (USD) could be a key beneficiary given the massive extent of short positioning in the currency.

Data in China is showing some softening in momentum.  China’s Jan official purchasing managers index (PMI) kicked off this week’s data and event schedule yesterday, with both the manufacturing and service sector PMIs disappointing expectations; the manufacturing PMI fell to 51.3 in Jan (consensus 51.6, last month 51.9) and services to 52.4 in Jan from 55.7 previously.  China’s softer PMI once again contrasted with a series of Asia manufacturing PMIs, released this morning. Later today the US Jan ISM manufacturing index is likely to register a modest decline (consensus: 60.0 from 60.7 previously). Also in focus today is India’s budget announcement, with the Fiscal Year 2021 budget deficit likely to be around 6-7% of GDP, much higher than the original 3.5% estimate.  

Over the rest of the week there are interest rate decisions in Australia (Tuesday), Thailand, Poland (both on Wednesday), UK (Thursday) and India (Friday).  Among these the Reserve Bank of India has the most potential for a surprise relative to market expectations, with a rate cut likely.  The highlight of the week is likely to be the US January jobs report at the end of this week (consensus 55k).  Deliberations on US fiscal stimulus will also be in focus, with a group of 10 Republican Senators writing to President Biden with a $600 billion stimulus proposal, well below the $1.9 trillion put forward by the administration.  Democrats have hinted that they may push through stimulus via reconciliation, which not require Republican support in the Senate, but such a move would likely sour any mood of cooperation in the Senate. 

Lingering Disappointment

Another soft close to US stock markets at the end of last week sets up for a nervous start to the week ahead.  The S&P 500 has now declined for a third straight week, with tech stocks leading the way lower as more froth is blown way from the multi-month run up in these stocks.  Lingering disappointment in the wake of the Federal Reserve FOMC meeting is one factor that has weighed on risk assets.  More details on how the Fed plans to implement its new policy on average inflation targeting will be sought. Markets will also look to see whether the Fed is pondering any changes to its Quantitative Easing program. This week Fed officials will get the opportunity to elaborate on their views, with several Fed speeches in the pipeline including three appearances by Fed Chair Powell. 

Disappointment on monetary policy can be matched with a lack of progress on the fiscal front, with hopes of an agreement on Phase 4 fiscal stimulus ahead of US elections fading rapidly.  A loss of momentum in US economic activity as reflected in the NY Fed’s weekly economic index and declining positive data surprises as reflected in the Citi Economic Surprise Index, are beginning to show that the need for fresh stimulus is growing.  On the political front, the situation has become even more tense ahead of elections; following the death of Supreme Court justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg attention this week will focus on President Trump’s pick to replace her, adding another twist to the battle between Democrats and Republicans ahead of the election.    

Another major focal point ahead of elections is US-China tensions, which continue to simmer away. China’s economy and currency continue to outperform even as tensions mount.  August’s slate of Chinese data were upbeat and China’s currency (CNY) is increasingly reflecting positive economic momentum, with the CNY CFETS trade weighted index rising to multi week highs.  There is every chance that tensions will only get worse ahead of US elections, likely as the US maintains a tough approach in the weeks ahead but so far Chinese and Asian markets in general are not reacting too much.  This may change if as is likely, tensions worsen further. 

After last week’s heavy slate of central bank meetings, this week is also going to see many central banks deliberate on monetary policy.  The week kicks off with China’s Loan Prime Rate announcement (Mon), followed by policy decisions in Hungary and Sweden (both Tue), New Zealand, Thailand, Norway (all on Wed), and Turkey (Thu).  Markets expect all of the central banks above to keep policy unchanged as was the case with the many central banks announcing policy decisions last week.  The lack of central bank action adds further evidence that 1) growth is starting to improve in many countries and 2) the limits of conventional policy are being reached.  While renewed rounds of virus infections threaten the recovery process much of the onus on policy action is now on the fiscal front. 

%d bloggers like this: