Eurozone contagion spreading quickly

Contagion from the eurozone debt crisis is spreading quickly, threatening to turn a regional crisis into a global crisis. As highlighted by Fitch ratings further contagion would pose a risk to US banks. Consequently risk assets continue to be sold but interestingly oil prices are climbing. Taken together with comments earlier in the day from the Bank of England that failure to resolve the crisis will lead to “significant adverse effects” on the global economy, it highlights the risks of both economic and financial contagion.

Predominately for some countries this is becoming a crisis of confidence and failure of officials to get to grips with the situation is resulting in an ever worsening spiral of negativity. Although Monti was sworn in as Italian Prime Minister and Papademos won a confidence motion in the Greek parliament the hard work begins now for both leaders in convincing markets of their reform credentials. Given that there is no agreement from eurozone officials forthcoming, sentiment is set to worsen further, with safe haven assets the main beneficiaries.

EUR/USD dropped sharply in yesterday’s session hitting a low around 1.3429. Attempts to rally were sold into, with sellers noted just below 1.3560. Even an intensification of bond purchases by the European Central Bank (ECB) failed to prevent eurozone bond yields moving higher and the EUR from falling.

Against this background and in the absence of key data releases EUR will find direction from the Spanish 10 year bond auction while a French BTAN auction will also be watched carefully given the recent increase in pressure on French bonds. Having broken below 1.3500, EUR/USD will aim for a test of the 10 October low around 1.3346 where some technical support can be expected.

US data releases have been coming in better than expected over recent weeks, acting to dampen expectations of more Fed quantitative easing and in turn helping to remove an impediment to USD appreciation. While the jury is still out on QE, the USD is enjoying some relief from receding expectations that the Fed will forced to purchase more assets. Further USD gains are likely, with data today including October housing starts and the November Philly Fed manufacturing confidence survey unlikely to derail the currency despite a likely drop in starts.

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Contrasting US and European data

While the week is likely to commence in a positive mood as political uncertainties in Greece and Italy ease somewhat, there are still plenty of uncertainties that could derail risk appetite. In particular, there has been little progress on agreeing on further details on leveraging the EFSF bailout fund. Moreover, many are looking to the European Central Bank (ECB) to take up the role as lender of the last resort. Indeed, the difficulty of the EFSF debt issue last week to garner demand puts the onus firmly on the ECB.

While it is likely that the ECB will have to step up its bond purchases especially given the heavy bond supply this week from Italy, France and Spain, the ECB is very reluctant to take up this mantle. As a result, peripheral and increasingly core bond market sentiment will remain fragile while the EUR will be vulnerable to a drop lower, especially given how rich it looks around current levels close to 1.38 versus USD. The week will likely be one of selling risk on rallies.

Data releases this week will show some contrasts between the US and Europe. US data will further dampen expectations of more Fed quantitative easing, with October retail sales and industrial production set to register gains and November manufacturing surveys likely to bounce. Several Federal Reserve speeches this week will shed more light on the FOMC’s stance and likely some support for purchases of mortgage backed securities will be reiterated.

In contrast eurozone data will show further deceleration. Industrial production in September is likely to have dropped sharply while the German ZEW investor confidence survey is set to have dropped further in November. Even an expected bounce in eurozone Q3 GDP will do little to stave off recession concerns given that growth in the final quarter of the year will have been much weaker. Banking sector develeraging will only add to growth concerns as credit expansion in curtailed.

In FX markets, the risk currencies will be vulnerable to selling pressure. EUR/USD has rebounded having tested highs around 1.3815 this morning but its gains look increasingly fragile. USD/JPY continues to grind lower, with no sign of further intervention from the Japanese authorities. Elevated risk aversion and the narrow US yield advantage continues to support the JPY making the job of weakening the currency harder. GBP has done well although it has lagged the EUR against the USD over recent days. A likely dovish stance in the Bank of England (BoE) quarterly inflation report will see GBP struggle to extend gains above 1.60 against the USD.

Plenty of event risk

This week is heavy with event risk, with a lot expected from EU leaders. So far the risk on tone to markets has held up, with for example the VIX fear gauge resting below the key 30.0. The G20 meeting over the weekend set the deadline for action for concrete solutions to the eurozone debt crisis for the October 23 EU Summit.

However, there will be little detail on issues such as banking sector recapitalisation, private sector involvement in any debt restructuring or ‘leveraging’ the EFSF bailout fund until the report on Wednesday night by the Troika on Greece. The reward to EU leaders would be the potential for more aid from the IMF but even now it seems that a German government official has poured cold water of a plan being announced at the EU Summit which will disappoint markets.

There are also plenty of data releases for markets to digest over coming days including inflation releases, manufacturing surveys and industrial production data in the US while in Europe the German IFO and ZEW surveys are scheduled for release. The data will follow on from the better than expected September US retail sales releases at the end of last week continuing to dampen expectations that the global economy is falling in recession though there will be a marked deceleration in European data.

Meanwhile the US Q3 earnings season rolls. The risk on tone will likely continue to weigh on the USD and weigh on bonds but unlike a few weeks ago when a lot of bad news was priced in, the scope for disappointment is becoming increasingly high.

Many currencies remain highly correlated with gyrations in risk and in this respect the improvement in risk appetite is good news for high beta / commodity. AUD, NZD, CAD and JPY are amongst the most sensitive currencies and therefore prone to a bigger reaction as risk improves, with the former three strengthening and the JPY weakening. Asian currencies poised to benefit from firmer risk appetite include INR and KRW, both with relatively high correlations with risk.

EUR/USD has made a solid recovery over recent days from its lows around 1.3146 spurred by hopes of action by European officials. Such hopes may yet be dashed but the EUR looks supported over coming days ahead of the EU summit Speculative positioning also reflects a slight improvement in EUR sentiment as IMM short positions have declined in the last week but its worth noting that this week’s European data are unlikely to be supportive for the EUR.

Payrolls sour mood, Eurozone concerns intensify

The market mood has soured further and risk aversion has increased following disappointing August US jobs report in which the change in payrolls was zero and downward revisions to previous months has reinforced the negative mood on the US and global economy while raising expectations of more Federal Reserve action. Moreover, the report has put additional pressure on US President Obama to deliver fresh jobs measures in his speech on Thursday though Republican opposition may leave Obama with little actual leeway for further stimulus.

There is plenty of event risk over coming days, with a heavy slate central bank meetings including in Europe, UK, Japan, Australia, Canada and Sweden. The European Central Bank will offer no support to a EUR that is coming under growing pressure, with the Bank set to take a more neutral tone to policy compared its previously hawkish stance. In the UK, GBP could also trade cautiously given recent comments by Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee members about potential for more UK quantitative easing.

The EUR has been unable to capitalise on the bad economic news in the US as news there has been even worse. The negative news includes the weekend defeat of German Chancellor Merkel’s centre-right bloc in regional elections, which comes ahead of a vote in Germany’s constitutional court on changes to the EFSF bailout fund.

The withdrawal of the Troika (ECB, IMF and EU) from Greece has also put renewed emphasis on the country at a time when protests are escalating. If all of this is not enough there is growing concern about Italy’s apparent backtracking on austerity measures, with the Italian parliament set to discuss measures this week. Separately Germany, Holland and Finland will hold a meeting tomorrow on the Greek collateral issue. On top of all of this is the growing evidence of deteriorating growth in the euro area.

Data releases are unlikely to garner a great deal of attention amidst the events noted above, with mainly service sector purchasing managers indices on tap and at least threw will look somewhat better than their manufacturing counterparts. In the US the Beige Book and trade data will be in focus but all eyes will be on Obama’s speech later in the week. The USD has maintained a firm tone despite the jobs report but its resilience may be better explained by eurozone negativity rather than US positivity. Even so, the USD is looking less uglier than the EUR in the current environment.

US Economic Data Disappointments

Risk gyrations continue, with a sharp shift back into risk off mood for markets driven in large part by yet more disappointing US economic data as the May ADP jobs report came in far weaker than expected at 38k whilst the ISM manufacturing index dropped to 53.5 in May, its lowest reading since September 2009. This was echoed globally as manufacturing purchasing managers indices (PMI) softened, raising concerns that the global ‘soft patch’ will extend deeper and longer than predicted.

The market mood was further darkened by news that Moodys downgraded Greece’s sovereign credit ratings to Caa1 from B1, putting the country on par with Cuba and effectively predicting a 50% probability of default.

The resultant jump in risk aversion was pretty extensive, with US Treasury yields dipping further, commodity prices dropping led by soft commodities, and equity volatility spiking although notably implied currency volatility has remained relatively well behaved.

Global growth worries led by the US have now surpassed Greek and eurozone peripheral country concerns as the main driver of risk aversion, especially as it increasingly looks as though agreement on a further bailout package for Greece is moving closer to being achieved. Moreover, it seems as though a ‘Vienna initiative’ type of plan is moving towards fruition involving a voluntary rollover of debt.

The lack of first tier economic data releases today suggests that it will be a case of further digestion or perhaps indigestion of the weak run of US data releases over recent weeks and the implications for policy. For instance, it is no coincidence that QE3 is now being talked about again following the end of QE2 although it still seems very unlikely.

Bonds may see some respite from the recent rally given the lack of data today although this may prove short-lived as expectations for the May US jobs report tomorrow are likely to have been revised sharply lower in the wake of the weak ADP jobs data and ISM survey yesterday, with an outcome sub 100k now likely for May US non-farm payrolls.

Meanwhile, FX markets are caught between the conflicting forces of higher risk aversion and weaker US data, leaving ranges to dominate. On balance, risk currencies will likely remain under pressure today and the USD may get a semblance of support in the current environment.

This may be sufficient to prevent EUR/USD from retesting its 1 June high around 1.4459 as markets wait for further developments on the Greek front. Once again the likes of the CHF and to a lesser extent JPY will do well in a risk off environment whilst the likes of the AUD and NZD will suffer.

Risk on, US dollar pressure

FX markets have plenty of different factors to digest these days and after a harrowing couple of weeks markets began this week on a firmer footing. The overall tone into this week is to load up on risk assets. News that the nuclear situation in Japan may closer to stabilising has helped, whilst markets easily shook off another hike in China’s reserve ratio and ongoing conflict in Libya as Allied forces step up their campaign in the face of continuing resistance from Gaddafi’s forces.

Improved risk appetite has helped to keep the JPY on the defensive along with the continued threat of FX intervention, with further official JPY selling likely in the days ahead. Interestingly the intervention last Friday was estimated at only JPY 530 billion ($6.2 billion), much lower than previously thought. USD/JPY 80 remains a major line in the sand and any sign of another breach of this level will likely be met with official JPY selling. I suspect that the Japanese authorities will not be content until USD/JPY is far higher. In this respect its worth noting an official report released earlier in March highlighting that Japanese companies are not profitable at a USD/JPY rate below 86.

The EUR looks overbought around the 1.42 level but seems to be a beneficiary of Japanese FX intervention (perhaps a recycling of USDs into EUR) as well as comments by European Central Bank (ECB) Council members reiterating their intention to hike the refi policy rate, likely at the April ECB meeting. In a similar vein to the recycling of intervention USDs into EUR, Middle East entities may also be recycling petrodollars into EUR whilst news that Russia has permitted one of its oil related funds to buy Spanish debt has given a lift to sentiment for the EUR. Over the near term EUR/USD may struggle to make much headway above 1.42, with further direction coming from the EU leaders meeting on 24/25 March.

GBP is also doing well, having jumped close to the 1.6400 level versus USD, with UK February CPI giving the currency a further lift. The outcome at 4.4% YoY, which was not as bad as rumoured but in any case worse than consensus will give the hawks in the Bank of England MPC further ammunition to push for a policy rate hike. The fact that core inflation also increased suggests that the jump in headline inflation cannot merely be brushed under the table. A BoE rate hike is increasingly looking like a done deal. Renewed inflation worries in the UK and the hawkish rhetoric from ECB officials is sufficient to keep the USD under pressure.

Exhausted

No the title is not meant to describe how I felt this morning when I woke up but how I feel the market is looking at present in terms of risk trades. Firmer than feared economic data in the US and China and the agreement in Basel on new bank capital ratios boosted risk appetite but the moves are already beginning to fade. It would be easy to jump on the bandwagon but after the sharp gains registered over recent days I would suggest taking a cautious stance on jumping into risk trades at present.

The EUR has played a degree of catch up to risk currencies, rallying sharply against the USD, helped in part by the European Commission which raised its forecasts for the eurozone economy from 0.9% for 2010 to 1.7%. Although the change in forecasts should come as little surprise give that it is now in line with the European Central Bank’s (ECB) expectations the news bolstered the view of economic resilience in the eurozone. Unfortunately as the ECB noted following its last meeting there are plenty of downside risks to growth next year and upcoming data releases will be viewed to determine how sharply growth momentum will slow into next year.

One currency that strengthened was the JPY and this was mainly due the view that Prime Minister Kan will win the contest for leadership of the governing DPJ party in Japan. The race remains very close, with Prime Minister Kan having a slight lead according to Japanese press. The FX market will pay particular attention to the result given that the other contender Ichiro Ozawa has stated his willingness to drive the JPY lower as well as increase fiscal spending. The results of the election will be known shortly and should Ozawa win USD/JPY will likely find support although the bigger influence is likely to be a shift in relative US/Japan bond yields which due to the sell off in US Treasuries over recent days has become more supportive of a higher USD/JPY.

GBP has lagged the move in many risk currencies, failing to take advantage of the weaker USD. There was some relief overnight from an increase in consumer confidence in August according to the Nationwide index, which rose 5 points to 61, from a 14-month low in July. However, any boost to GBP sentiment will have been outweighed by a fall in UK house prices according to RICS, which revealed the sharpest one-month fall in August since June 2004. The data supports the view that the rally in UK house prices could soon be over. Weaker housing activity will also likely limit any further improvement in consumer confidence. Some of this is already priced into GBP however, and over the short-term EUR/GBP may struggle to breach the 0.8400 level.

Another underperformer overnight was the NZD which was hit by disappointing retail sales data for July, which fell 0.4%. Although the drop followed a strong gain in the previous month the data supports the view that the consumer remains cautious in New Zealand, a factor that will likely play into the view that New Zealand’s central bank, the RBNZ will keep policy on hold when they meet tomorrow. NZD slipped off its highs around 0.7347 overnight and also managed to dampen the upside momentum for AUD/USD which will likely struggle to sustain a break through resistance around 0.9350.

Today’s data will provide further direction for the days ahead, with the September German ZEW survey of investor confidence likely to be closely scrutinized. A drop in the economic sentiment gauge to around 10 is expected from 14 in August, highlighting that eurozone growth momentum is beginning to wane. Hard data in the form of eurozone industrial production will also record a weaker performance, likely to drop 0.3% in July. The data will likely cap the EUR today.

In the US the main release is the August retail sales report for which a 0.3% gain in both headline and ex-autos sales is expected. Sales will have been helped by back to school spending although major discounting will have weighed on retailers’ profits. Nonetheless, any gain even if modest will be a welcome development for Q3 growth in the US.

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