Turkey, Emerging Market Central Banks, Eurozone Divergence

Attention today is on developments in Turkey. Despite consensus expectations of a 100bp (1%) hike in rates, Turkey’s central bank delivered a bigger than expected 200bp increase last week, with a hawkish statement.  This appears not have been welcomed by Turkish President Erdogan who promptly removed central bank (CBRT) Governor Aqbal on Saturday.  Despite some reassurance from Aqbal’s replacement that policy would deliver price stability the result has been substantial pressure on Turkey’s currency the lira (TRY) at the start of trading in Asia today, with the lira down as much as 15% initially, erasing more than four months of gains.  Turkish authorities are likely to intervene to limit the damage, but the damage has been done.  There has also been some, albeit more limited fall out on other emerging market currencies.

The end of the week saw a bit of a reversal in recent trends, with tech stocks gaining most, at the expense of bank stocks, which were weighed down by the news that the US Federal Reserve would not extend the Supplementary Leverage Ratio (SLR) exemption but rather to look at a more permanent solution. This could lower banks demand for Treasuries while constraining dealer balance sheets. Both S&P 500 and Nasdaq recorded declines over the week amid a further rise in US Treasury yields.  Quadruple witching saw an increase in volumes and oil prices recorded a sharp close to 8% decline over the week while Chinese stocks continued to suffer. 

Aside from Turkey there was some interesting central bank action last week in the emerging markets.  The BCB in Brazil hiked by 75bps, more expected, and indicated the high likelihood of another 75bps at the May meeting.  The CBR in Russia also joined in on the hawkish emerging markets (EM) action surprising markets by hiking rates by 25bps, with a likely acceleration in tightening likely over coming meetings.  EM central bank decisions this week include China (today), Philippines (Thu), Thailand (Wed), Hungary (Tue), South Africa (Thu), Mexico (Fri) and Colombia (Fri).   Separately, the SNB in Switzerland also decides on policy (Thu). China’s loan prime rates were left unchanged as expected and no changes are likely from any of the other central banks this week. 

Other data and events this week include the US PCE report (Fri), President Biden’s press conference (Thu) which could offer clues to the “Rescue” package that could amount to $3-4trn. A host of Fed speakers are also on tap, including Fed Chair Powell, as well as Eurozone flash purchasing managers indices (PMIs) (Wed), and UK retail sales (Fri).  The data will reveal stark differences in the recovery picture in the UK and Eurozone while the difference between the US and Europe looks even more stark.  Europe is struggling with a third wave of Covid case, vaccination delays and tighter restrictions, leading to a reduction in growth forecasts, while US growth forecasts are being revised higher in the wake of the $1.9tn stimulus package. This will likely result in some underperformance of Eurozone markets relative to the US.  

US dollar weakness providing relief

The US dollar index has weakened since mid-August 2018 although weakness in the broad trade weighted USD has become more apparent since the beginning of this month.  Despite a further increase in US yields, 10 year treasury yields have risen in recent weeks to close to 3.1%, the USD has surprisingly not benefited.  It is not clear what is driving USD weakness but improving risk appetite is likely to be a factor. Markets have been increasingly long USDs and this positioning overhang has also acted as a restraint on the USD.

Most G10 currencies have benefitted in September, with The Swedish krona (SEK), Norwegian Krone (NOK) and British pound (GBP) gaining most.  The Japanese yen (JPY) on the other hand has been the only G10 currency to weaken this month as an improvement in risk appetite has led to reduced safe haven demand for the currency.

In Asia most currencies are still weaker versus the dollar over September, with the Indian rupee leading the declines.  Once again Asia’s current account deficit countries (India, Indonesia, and Philippines) have underperformed most others though the authorities in all three countries have become more aggressive in terms of trying to defend their currencies.  Indeed, The Philippines and Indonesia are likely to raise policy interest rates tomorrow while the chance of a rate hike from India’s central bank next week has risen.

As the USD weakens it will increasingly help many emerging market currencies.   The likes of the Argentinian peso, Turkish lira and Brazilian real have been particularly badly beaten up, dropping 51.3%, 38.5% and 18.8%, respectively this year.  Although much of the reason for their declines have been idiosyncratic in nature, USD weakness would provide a major source of relief.  It’s too early to suggest that this drop in the USD is anything more than a correction especially given the proximity to the Fed FOMC decision later, but early signs are positive.

 

Emerging market currencies under pressure

One of the key factors that have provoked the current bout higher risk aversion was the sub-50 Chinese manufacturing confidence gauge (PMI) which has intensified concerns about slowing growth . Additionally reports regulators in China have issued warnings about credit to the coal industry has reinforced debt fears in the country.

Domestic fundamental and political pressures in other currencies have contributed to the malaise in emerging markets, with a major drop in the Argentine peso and pressure on many other high beta emerging market currencies (including the usual suspects Turkish lira, South African rand and Indian rupee).

A deteriorating outlook for many emerging markets currencies based on concerns about the impact of Fed tapering and slowing emerging markets growth appears to be increasingly intensifying. Competition for capital as the Fed tapers will make things worse. The pressure is unlikely to ease quickly leaving many EM currencies vulnerable to a further sell off.

Beware of yield sensitive currencies

Markets are becoming increasingly accustomed to the idea of an imminent Fed tapering as reflected in ongoing gains in risk assets. Indeed, these gains have taken place even in the face of comments by Fed officials overnight including Bullard and Fisher which on balance supported the view of beginning tapering sooner rather than later.

The fact that US bond yields continue to decline despite the release of a slate of firmer US and global data also suggests that a lot in terms of tapering expectations are priced in. Nonetheless, year end position adjustment may also account for some of the moves, particularly with the USD coming under near term pressure against most currencies except JPY as US yields slip.

I remain constructive on the USD given that US growth will outperform, with an attendant rise in US yields. Not only am I constructive on the USD against many major currencies, I expect the USD to strengthen versus many emerging market currencies too.

Those currencies most sensitive to US yields (10 year US Treasuries) will be among the biggest underperformers in 2014. This list includes the INR, TRY, MYR, and BRL. The rationale for weakness in these currencies is that Fed tapering and higher US yields will further increase capital outflows or at least reduce inflows to many countries.

Conversely some of the currencies least effected by tapering / higher US yields are in the top half of the likely outperformers next year including KRW and TWD.

Bracing for a world without steroids

The sell off of risk assets in the wake of the Fed’s surprisingly direct FOMC communication continues unabated. Hopes that Fed chief Bernanke would attempt to assuage market concerns about tapering have been blown apart and instead the reality of forthcoming tapering continues to bite leading to higher US yields, weaker stocks and commodities and a firmer USD. In fact the USD appears to have finally re-established its positive relationship with yields and risk aversion.

The situation hasn’t been helped by the fact that data out of China has disappointed while local money market rates had risen sharply this week. Separately Japan’s reform momentum appears to have stalled ahead of Upper House elections as Prime Minister Abe’s third arrow missed target.

In combination these factors mean that markets are bracing for the day that they no longer have steroid injections to keep them going. Instead fundamentals will become important to sustain gains in risk assets. Why should anyone be surprised? US growth is recovering and at some point tapering has to occur. Unfortunately risk assets were just not ready for this revelation.

Ongoing volatility and uncertainty is likely to persist over the coming weeks as markets transition to an environment of Fed tapering, but this will give way to a renewed improvement in risk appetite and lower volatility later in the year.

The USD index continued to rise overnight having corrected around a third of its losses since 22 May. Gains remain broad based with gains registered against major and emerging market currencies. US Treasury yield differentials with other countries continue to widen across the board leaving the USD in strong form (10 year Treasury yield has risen by close to 80 basis points since early May).

Going forward firmer US data, taken together with higher US yields, will continue to drive the USD higher against major currencies, while some improvement in risk appetite as investors become accustomed to the prospects of Fed tapering will allow emerging market currencies to recover some, but not all lost ground against the USD.

Many currencies have become highly sensitive to US yields, with the TRY, NZD and INR the most sensitive over the past three months although notably most Asian currencies are near the top in terms of sensitivities.

Against this background unsurprisingly Asia continues to register capital outflows. All Asian countries have registered capital outflows this month, with total equity outflows of $10.2 billion registered, led by South Korea and Taiwan. Obviously the bigger concern is for deficit countries including India and Indonesia, with their currencies remaining particularly vulnerable to capital outflows.

Recent market volatility has meant that the prospects of Japanese investors stepping up their outflows have diminished over the near term. The latest data released yesterday showed that Japanese investors repatriated capital for a fifth straight week.

It is only a matter of time before outflows pick up as risk appetite improves as US yields move higher. The US 10Y Treasury yield advantage has widened versus Japanese JGBs to around 153bp and I expect this to widen further to around 185bp by the end of 2013. This will be consistent with a renewed slide in the JPY versus USD.

<span>%d</span> bloggers like this: